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What You Need To Know

Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 10 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas (as defined by “city proper”), behind São Paulo, and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes. It became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World. The National University of San Marcos, founded on May 12, 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games. It also hosted the December 2014 United Nations Climate Change Conference and the Miss Universe 1982 pageant. In October 2015, Lima hosted the 2015 Annual Meetings of the World Bank Group and the International Monetary Fund.

 

Population: Estimate 10,357,177 Visit population.city
Area: 2 672 km²

Currency

Anthem

Lima’s anthem was heard for the first time on January 18, 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian PresidentAlan García, and other authorities. The anthem was created by Luis Enrique Tord (lyrics), Euding Maeshiro (music) and record producer Ricardo Núñez (arranger).

 

Cityscape

Lima’s architecture offers a mix of styles. Examples of early colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the Cathedral and the Torre Tagle Palace. These constructions are generally influenced by Spanish Baroque, Spanish Neoclassical and Spanish Colonial styles.  After independence, preferences gradually shifted toward neoclassical and Art Nouveau styles. Many of these works were influenced by French architectural styles. Many government buildings and major cultural institutions were constructed in this period. During the 1960s, the brutalist style began appearing in Lima due to the military government of Juan Velasco Alvarado. Examples of this architecture include the Museum of the Nation and the Ministry of Defense. The early 21st century added glass skyscrapers, particularly around the financial district.

 

Economy

Lima is the country’s industrial and financial centre and one of Latin America’s most important financial centers, home to many national companies and hotels. It accounts for more than two thirds of Peru’s industrial production  and most of its tertiary sector. The Metropolitan area, with around 7,000 factories,  leads industrial development, thanks to the quantity and quality of the available workforce, transport and other infrastructure. Products include textiles, clothing and food. Chemicals, fish, leather and oil derivatives are manufactured and/or processed. The financial district is in San Isidro, while much of the industrial activity takes place west of downtown, extending to the airport in Callao. Lima has the largest export industry in South America and is a regional hub for the cargo industry. Industrialization began in the 1930s and by 1950, through import substitution policies, manufacturing made up 14{2ccfa8d31b5027b67a8582d384faa98a411bfe1de752e043d2cf4c5f46f71dcd} of GNP. In the late 1950s, up to 70{2ccfa8d31b5027b67a8582d384faa98a411bfe1de752e043d2cf4c5f46f71dcd} of consumer goods were manufactured in factories located in Lima. The Callao seaport is one of the main fishing and commerce ports in South America, covering over 47 hectares (120 acres) and shipping 20.7 million metric tons of cargo in 2007. The main export goods are commodities: oil, steel, silver, zinc, cotton, sugar and coffee. As of 2003, Lima generated 53{2ccfa8d31b5027b67a8582d384faa98a411bfe1de752e043d2cf4c5f46f71dcd} of GDP.  Most foreign companies in Peru settled in Lima.

 

Language

Known as Peruvian Coast Spanish, Lima’s Spanish is characterized by the lack of strong intonations as found in many other Spanish-speaking regions. It is heavily influenced by Castilian Spanish. Throughout the colonial era, most of the Spanish nobility based in Lima were originally from Castile. Limean Castillian is also characterized by the lack of voseo, unlike many other Latin American countries. This is because voseo was primarily used by Spain’s lower socioeconomic classes, a social group that did not begin to appear in Lima until the late colonial era. Limean Spanish is distinguished by its clarity in comparison to other Latin American accents and has been influenced by immigrant groups including Italians, Andalusians, West Africans, Chinese and Japanese. It also has been influenced by anglicisms as a result of globalization, as well as by Andean Spanish and Quechua, due to migration from the Andean highlands

 

Local

The city is roughly equivalent to the Province of Lima, which is subdivided into 43 districts. The Metropolitan Municipality has authority over the entire city, while each district has its own local government. Unlike the rest of the country, the Metropolitan Municipality, although a provincial municipality, acts as and has functions similar to a regional government, as it does not belong to any of the 25 regions of Peru. Each of the 43 districts has their own distrital municipality that is in charge of its own district and coordinate with the metropolitan municipality.

 

Transport

Air

Lima is served by Jorge Chávez International Airport, located in Callao (LIM). It is the country’s largest airport hosting the largest number of domestic and international passengers. It serves as the fourth largest hub in the Latin American air network. Lima possesses five other airports: the Las Palmas Air Force Base, Collique Airport and runways in Santa María del Mar, San Bartolo and Chilca.

Road

Lima is a major stop on the Pan-American Highway. Because of its location on the country’s central coast, Lima is an important junction in Peru’s highway system. Three major highways originate in Lima.

Rail

Lima is connected to the Central Andean region by the Ferrocarril Central Andino which runs from Lima through the departments of Junín, Huancavelica, Pasco and Huánuco. Major cities along this line include Huancayo, La Oroya, Huancavelica and Cerro de Pasco. Another inactive line runs from Lima northwards to the city of Huacho.

Public

Lima’s road network is based mostly on large divided avenues rather than freeways. Lima operates a network of nine freeways – the Via Expresa Paseo de la Republica, Via Expresa Javier Prado, Via Expresa Grau, Panamericana Norte, Panamericana Sur, Carretera Central, Via Expresa Callao, Autopista Chillon Trapiche and the Autopista Ramiro Priale.

 

Tourism

The Historic Centre, made up of the districts of Lima and Rímac, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988.[78] Some examples of colonial architecture include the Monastery of San Francisco, the Plaza Mayor, the Cathedral, Convent of Santo Domingo and the Palace of Torre Tagle. A tour of the city’s churches is a popular circuit. A trip through the central district visits churches dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, the most noteworthy of which are the Cathedral and the Monastery of San Francisco, said to be connected by subterranean catacombs.  Both contain paintings, Sevilian tile and sculpted wood furnishings.

 

Weather

Despite its location in the tropics and in a desert, Lima’s proximity to the cool waters of the Pacific Ocean leads to temperatures much lower than those expected for a tropical desert and thus Lima can be classified as a mild desert climate (Köppen: BWn) with subtropicaltemperature ranges. Temperatures rarely fall below 14 °C (57 °F) or rise above 29 °C (84 °F).  Two distinct seasons can be identified: summer, from December through April; and winter from June through October. May and November are generally transition months, with a more dramatic warm-to-cool weather transition.